Trivia Crack Answer: Presocratics
About the first philosophers
The name of the first philosophers was the Presocratics. These were Greek philosophers like Anaximander, Pythagoras, Xenophon, and Heraclitus. Many of the first philosophers were concerned with the natural world, its composition, and the nature of matter and existence. Presocratic philosophers came up with a wide range of ideas concerning the composition of matter, though few were able to base their hypotheses on any kind of evidence. Among the schools of thought were that the universe was made up of water, combinations of earth, fire, water, and air, a universal One, and even infinite, identical particles called atoms, bearing striking similarity to modern physics. The paradoxes of Zeno of Elea, which were created as evidence for the philosopher Parmenides’ assertion that all change was an illusion, still have relevance for mathematicians and philosophers today; these paradoxes include the Tortoise and Achilles and the Fletcher’s Paradox. Pythagoras, who led the school of the Pythagoreans, was eventually hailed as a god, and became the center of his own cult, which revolved around the belief that the harmony of the universe could be expressed in numbers. Heraclitus, another of the first philosophers who continues to have significance in modern philosophy, was an advocate for the idea that the world is in constant change, but united into a transcendent One. All of these philosophers were defined by their existence before the rise of Socrates, who revolutionized Western philosophy.